On June 22nd 2018, the author quite unexpectedly documented a brief event that may have been a weak tornado in the driveway of the family house. June is usually outside the normal bounds of tornado season for Alabama, but as shown by the event just a year and a day earlier, they can certainly happen at any time of year.

Summer is not the time to be looking for tornadoes in Alabama, with the exception of tropical systems. Dynamics just do not favor rotating thunderstorms in the state this time of year. Early summer of 2018 was somewhat of an exception though, with two events that produced isolated tornadoes in the state and a significant derecho event within the span of a month.

The first of these events was on June 22 – a day in which the SPC had actually outlined a 2% risk of tornadoes across central Alabama amidst a Slight risk for wind and hail. An upper level low was tracking into the Ohio Valley, producing an area of significantly greater dynamics than one would expect across Alabama in early summer. While shear values were not extreme, they were more significant than usually encountered in summer systems this far south. The SPC’s mesoscale discussion for the area outlined the impressive >50kt flow above 6km allowing for our usually messy storm mode to organize into isolated supercell clusters, and some low level turning was evident in the VWP from KGWX and other local sites, meaning these isolated supercell structures had at least an outside chance of producing tornadoes. This combined with significant instability set the stage for severe weather across Alabama through the evening.


BMX sounding on the evening of the 22nd

I was not expecting a significant event and was only intermittently monitoring conditions. A series of suspicious cells developed and tracked across central Alabama in the mid-afternoon hours, but despite a pocket of slightly enhanced low level shear, these did not produce severe weather. On the back end of these, a small shower was moving across Walker County, seemingly weakening.

Screenshot_2018-06-22-17-42-48 Screenshot_2018-06-22-17-42-58

I intended on making a quick run back to my dad’s house from my grandparents’ house to pick up mail, but this shower dumped a brief torrent of rain as I headed out the door. At about 5:35pm, I jumped in the passenger seat to watch the sky as a few interesting low lying scud clouds caught my eye.


A perfect funnel with decent contrast is hard to ignore regardless of its origin

On Old Zion Road, the sky was filled on the back side of this shower with a perfectly symmetrical funnel hanging low to the ground. Obviously, I assumed, this was scud, as the shower looked anemic on radar despite an intriguing weak couplet on the back side. I laughed about it, but kept taking photos as it was certainly very fascinating.


The cloud bank was clearly rotating, though I still assumed it was merely scud, which can indeed rotate intriguingly while still being harmless. It was a very interesting sight so I kept taking photos through the windshield (as a passenger, no worries)


Redmill Saragossa Road, seconds before possible tornado

Turning on Redmill Saragossa Road, it was clear just how low to the ground this scud bank was. It was also clear there was rising motion to go along with the rotation. Not intense, but clearly that component was there. I still thought nothing of it, hence the quick vertical phone camera shot. In one of my greatest mistakes, I was not taking video, and had set my phone down as we approached the driveway. I still expected this to be nothing more than interesting scud and was thinking about picking up my mail.

And that’s when it happened – a bunch of scattered leaves and light tree debris shot up from the woods just ahead, and spun quickly to the right in midair. I scrambled for the phone camera again, but too late to actually capture that moment. I pressed record unfortunately as the camera was still in vertical mode and shot video through the windshield and passenger window as we stopped at the end of the driveway. In the otherwise completely calm conditions, a tall sweetgum tree showed the quick burst of surface wind by whipping rapidly around in what I assume was the edge of the funnel, which was not condensed near the ground. There was no other wind, and yet an inwardly spiraling gust of 30-50mph moved through the woods in tune with the scary scud. Just down the road in the path of this feature, a couple of large oak tree branches snapped, nearly crushing a vehicle and a roof. I looked aloft for evidence of a funnel after scanning the immediate sky.


While my video capture is not high quality, and I was a terrible videographer scanning left and right when the area of interest was practically overhead, checking the upper right of the stills shows evidence of a circular lowered strongly rotating column – much akin to videos from under a wall cloud or funnel cloud. This feature was much more defined in person, and matches closely with the location of the spiraling wind burst. I was somewhat in shock and still not fully believing what I was potentially seeing, so I waited a moment before moving down the driveway to a better vantage point, by which time the feature seemed to have lifted. The clouds were still very defined and strongly rotating, however; as strongly rotating as one could expect from a June shower in Alabama at least.


Feature of note to left of center

We approached the pasture, which opens up into a great view of the eastern sky. This feature was now to the east of our location, still spinning. Two areas beneath the cloud, in fact, consisted of rotating scud; far more fascinating to watch than one would assume from the shower’s innocuous radar appearance. Here I sat, watching the shower move on east-northeastward, slowly weakening and dissipating in the distance, and wondering if I had really just experienced what I thought I might have.


Weak rotation was present, but far weaker than one would assume for a legitimate tornado. Notice shower is dissipating only minutes after.

If conditions were not favorable for tornadoes that day, I would have thought nothing of it. However, merely an hour later and just one county north, a high-end EF2 tornado was rapidly produced by a small supercell not much bigger than this shower just west of the Winston/Cullman county line, completely destroying a new, fairly well anchored manufactured home and injuring the occupants. This was the strongest June tornado in the state of Alabama since 1994. Another tornado was documented near Higdon in northeast Alabama, an EF1 that snapped large healthy trees.

Quite understandably NWS BMX was reluctant to survey this little maybe-nado at the end of the driveway, with only a couple tree branches as evidence of damage in the entire county – and this damage was frustratingly logged out with an entire patch of woods only days later. As such, this event won’t go on record as an official tornado, as even I am unsure of its precise categorization. It was certainly far more interesting weather than I assumed was going to happen that day.

My full video of this event

SPC event page for 6/22/18

While not Walker County related, this tornado was the author’s first observed tornado, one year ago today. I figured it was as good a time as any to deliver a write-up on this event on this date.

On June 21, 2017, I happened to be on the Alabama Gulf Coast visiting my mom at the apartment she had just moved into the month prior. During a family crisis, I was going with her and helping clean condominiums for the first part of the day throughout that particular week. This week also happened to be same week Tropical Storm Cindy, the third tropical storm of what would become a devastating and historic Atlantic hurricane season, was meandering about in the Gulf of Mexico.


Cindy was not a very organized or particularly intense storm, but it was extremely large, bringing disorganized bands of squalls as far east as the Florida Panhandle even as the center lie south of Lafayette, Louisiana; half the Gulf away. Some debated the tropical nature of the low pressure area designated Cindy, but none could deny its widespread impact along the northern Gulf Coast. Tropical storm force winds and heavy rain buffeted the coastal regions, and treacherous seas led to at least one fatality and more coastal flooding than one would expect from a distant tropical storm lying well off to the west. Beaches were largely underwater as high seas rolled continuously almost up to some of the condominiums lining the Gulf. Along the Alabama coast, in between heavy squalls, one could see a three foot water rise and street flooding.


But along with these other threats, lay the risk for isolated tornadoes. This was always a threat with warm season tropical cyclones affecting the Gulf Coast, but this threat had been an unusually prolonged one. Cindy’s size and relatively slow movement led to multiple days with some sort of tornado risk along the coast. June 21st was perhaps the apex of this for the Alabama coast, as heavy bands in the northeast quadrant moved ominously toward the area in waves.

The Alabama coast was under a standard Slight Risk by the SPC all day, with the usual tropical 5% risk for tornadoes. Tornado Watch 359 had been issued at 10am, noting a rather extended period of threat for isolated tornadoes from Lafayette to Pensacola throughout the entire afternoon and evening. As well it should be, perhaps, as parameters briefly became fairly impressive in isolated pockets by the time tornadoes began dropping by mid-afternoon.


Heavy rain and 40-50mph gusts proved the primary issue in early bands, but by 1-2pm, parameters began to maximize. Pockets of 250-350 m2/s2 0-1km SRH showed up on mesoanalysis along the Alabama coast, and breaks in the overcast allowed areas of >1500 j/kg SBCAPE to be noted in the same area. EHI reached 4 in a small pocket along the coast, and there was briefly even an area where the STP was between 1 and 2. As these parameters peaked, the cells moving inland began to intensify, with weak rotations noted in showers and low-topped supercells moving NNW along the coast. Later, during the heart of the event, a mesoscale discussion noted the relatively enhanced tornado threat over this area. This noted that the increase in intensity was likely related to the approach of a low level speed maximum (50+kt at 850mb) leading to enlarged hodographs in a favorable time of near peak boundary layer instability for the day.

By 2:00pm, we had finished the last condo and headed for the main building to drop off dirty linens and head back to the apartment. I had lapsed in checking radar, too busy to notice the deepening of the showers just offshore. But at 2:29pm, while were were occupied sorting sheets, the building EAS came alive with a tornado warning for Baldwin County. I quickly checked Radarscope for the location and trajectory of this cell, and it just so happened that the storm was primed to move inland parallel to and just east of SR-59; the main north-south route from I-65 in the northern part of the county to the beach. Indeed, the road that mom’s apartment was accessed from, and our road leading there anyway.

We quickly made the decision that, since the timing and location of this cell was absolutely perfect, and would be right next to us regardless of whether or not we went to observe it on our way, we would follow it in an attempt to see if it would produce. And so, we took off, headed from Fort Morgan to SR-59 at Gulf Shores. The storm was already onshore at Orange Beach and headed NNW inland by the time we reached it, a few miles ahead of us. Heavy northbound traffic from thousands of vacationers apparently undeterred by the week’s poor weather and many red lights hampered the approach.

I haven’t located the videos of our journey there, but very ominous skies pervaded our early intercept. Black clouds, hanging very low with chaotic motion, filled the view to the northeast, though lines of tall pines, palmettos, and apartments blocked the view at ground level. These skies are typical of a tropical tornado event; extremely low cloud bases and low tops, very little lightning, and brief rotations and touchdowns make chasing a tropical tornado very different visually and logistically. But this storm happened to be perfectly located, if only we could reach it before it crossed SR-59.

North we went through Foley, leaden skies taunting us. The cell continued to track NNW and was approaching Summerdale, a few miles up from of Foley on SR-59. After miles of miserable slow traffic and many stops, a stretch of clear road allowed us to catch up, although the ground view was still blocked by trees. Soon, though, I knew we would come across several open fields at nurseries and orchards, a rare glimpse of sky before tree coverage increased again. If we could time it just right, we could observe the storm beautifully.


Despite a persistent couplet, there was no confirmation yet of an actual touchdown, such a thing being difficult to get in most tropical events, especially in an area with only scattered spotters. It would take a public report, usually, to confirm a tornado. Wherever the sky below the clouds was visible enough to see any detail, a slight ragged lowering with vertical motion and a very shallow cone-shaped dip below could be picked out by an astute eye, but with no indication of a funnel reaching the ground. The skies were very ominous and a tornado could drop at any moment, but there was no ground truth yet.

But we would have to wait no longer to determine if a touchdown would happen, even before reaching the open spots.


Briefly passing a gap in the trees, where CR 73 and a Foley Beach Express access road branched off SR-59, the lowering came into obvious view. And in perhaps some of the most fortuitous timing I will ever receive even if I were to chase storms for the next half century, a light and wispy, super thin and barely visible condensation and leaf debris trail twirled up from just behind the trees below the cone-shaped funnel, for perhaps a single second. It wasn’t even obvious enough to appear on video, even in high definition, but we both witnessed this brief, transient moment of contact.


Blocked by trees for the next several moments, we excitedly debated on whether or not we had actually seen what we had just seen. Were we certain enough to even count it? As brief as it was, the motion in the condensation whirl was enough to tip the scales in favor of it. Several long seconds later, we were in view of a field again, though traffic and advertising signs were ever-present in our field of view.


The cone had morphed, the obvious lowering hidden. The touchdown we had seen was brief, as there was no indication in the little patch of sky I assume to be the same immediate area of any motion right at the ground. We would later learn that a spotter with a much better vantage point was able to confirm a touchdown had occurred roughly in the area we witnessed it. However, at this point, from my view, there was a chaotic rolling motion at cloud base that I would describe as an elongated funnel cloud with no ground connection. The motion was highly impressive.


From this point, the sky became increasingly visible. The entire sky seemed to be rotating, as the cell approached SR-59 to cross. Classic storm structure training is sometimes severely challenged by these tropical supercells. Very little in the way of a RFD, wall cloud, or other visual cues was present in favor of a low rotating mass scooting off to the north, and which exact point in the storm was the point favored for a touchdown became increasingly unclear. Small wisps of rapidly moving scud formed underneath and were swallowed up in rapid succession, making the identification of any true funnels a little harder.


We pulled off to a gas station and car wash near Summerdale to watch the sky and let the cell cross SR-59 ahead of us. Over an open field, we could see the low rotating flank of the storm race NNW, dragging a mass of low grey rotating clouds low to the ground. Scud continued to form and rise, making for a fascinating scene of chaos. There may have been further intermittent touchdowns, but their brevity and poorly consolidated structures made that impossible to tell from our vantage point.

We continued to follow the storm a bit to the north, but then broke off on a hunch to get in position for another smaller cell beginning to rotate that was south of the main warned storm. We parked in an open area and watched impressive storm structure, but no indication of a tornadic threat. The videos of this I fear may be lost as I had to borrow a phone to record on, mine being full from the previous catch and its associated chase. The lesson here is to always make sure whatever you’re recording on has plenty of free space to document whatever you may find.

The brief Summerdale tornado was overshadowed by slightly more significant tornadoes in Conecuh and Escambia counties, and a couple of stronger touchdowns just across the border in Florida – not to mention the significant coastal and flash flooding occurring across the immediate area. And even those touchdowns seemed to pale in comparison to the sudden surprise tornado in Fairfield the next day, way up in Central AL, that injured four and damaged several homes and businesses. Cindy produced impacts all over the state indeed, despite the center staying far away.

One never forgets the thrill of their first tornado, as small and insignificant as it may sometimes be. In my excitement and confusion over whether it was worth reporting because of its brief nature and my uncertainty over whether or not it was an actual tornado, I forgot to report it until the next day, wherein NWS Mobile told me it matched well with other spotter reports. I was still excited over my catch but not too confident that it was an actual touchdown until I looked at the AL tornado database months later and found that, based on a much better report from another spotter, it had been confirmed (See Tornado 36) It wasn’t mentioned in any LSR or PNS as far as I recall so I had no indication of this until then.

I am still not fully sure I saw the actual touchdown reported by the spotter, but, based on my location, it seems that this is probably the case, and I count it as my first tornado. I suspect there were multiple very weak touchdowns along its trek, none causing damage, and I happened to spy one of these. For what it’s worth I complied some of the more interesting video into a clip a while back, though again, there is little to see in regards to a tornado within them. It’s on Youtube.

Obviously, for Tornado #2, I am going to have to try much harder; this one practically fell into my lap. But it was an amazing experience I wouldn’t trade for many others. This was not a high tech chase, with only a cell phone, Radarscope, and an SUV. And honestly it was not even much of a real ‘chase’ at all; rather, a right-place, right-time rare opportunity that led us only a few miles out of our way to see a marginal event that wound up producing. To see a classic, high end photogenic plains tornado, much more effort, expense, and planning is usually required – and even this does not guarantee success. To see a tornado on technically one’s first chase after putting almost no effort into it is absolutely absurd, but when presented with a perfect opportunity very close to home, why not see what happens? You might catch a break in the trees and see the telltale wisp of success right above the horizon.


NHC archive for Cindy

NWS Birmingham write-up

NWS Mobile write-up

You won’t find Cross Roads on most maps of Walker County today. This tiny little unincorporated community consists today of only a handful of old structures, and the memories of its inhabitants. It’s a few miles northwest of Jasper not far from Manchester and Saragossa, near the east end of Redmill Saragossa Road and Highway 5. But at roughly 3:12 PM on November 17, 1957, it played host to one of the most violent tornadoes in Walker County’s history, killing four along its five-mile trek. I’ve heard mention of this tornado growing up as a man who my grandfather was schooled under was killed along with his family on that day.

A few years back, I received some scans from the Daily Mountain Eagle’s article the following day documenting this tornado’s aftermath.

ct1 ct2 ct3

The text that has been preserved in the scans reads thus:


Scene of Sunday tragedy – This pine tree is still standing in front of the foundation of Wilford Bradfords demolished home in the Cross Roads Community. The tornado swirled down lifted the house and blasted it over, under, and through the pine tree. ??? ??? In the background of the picture between the small trees and the center pine across Highway 5, 600 yards from the blocks seen in the foreground lies the remains of the house. (See picture page 6B) In the background is the demolished R. J. McCullough General Store. The Bradford home was so completely demolished it was hard to find two boards together.

This is all that remains of the Wilford Bradford home that was completely demolished in Sunday afternoon’s tornado that struck the Cross Roads community. Mr. and Mrs. Bradford and their 14-year old daughter were all killed in the tragedy.

CLEANING UP: National Guardsmen and neighbors help to clean up the mess a tornado made of the R. F. McCullough store at Cross Roads community in Walker County. A destructive tornado Sunday ripped down the building. Three persons were killed in the community.

GETAWAY FOILED: The Ed Clark family of Cross Roads Community in Walker County attempted to get out of the way of a tornado in this pickup truck Sunday, but the wind caught it. Only Mrs. Clark was injured. (Photo by William Fikes).

WALKER COUNTY DEAD: This picture, taken some time ago, is of the Wilford Bradley family of Cross Roads Community in Walker County. Bradford ???

The Significant Tornadoes entry (Grazulis 1991) for the event reads thus:

AL   NOV 17, 1957 1512 4k 15inj 400y 5m F4

WALKER — Moved NE from Cross Roads, 6m NW of Jasper, to 1m N of Manchester. A new ranch house was picked up, blown apart, and scattered. Three people were killed in that home. The fourth death occurred in another home.

The tornado was rated F4 after the introduction of the Fujita Scale in the 1970s, based on the obliteration of what I am told was a very well-built brick ranch house –  the nearly brand new home of the Bradfords. Multiple eyewitness reports say that the home was picked up mostly in one piece and thrown through the air, disintegrating explosively as it was carried around the funnel. Unfortunately, the family inside perished. Such a scary aerial disintegration of an entire house has been documented on video since then, such as at Eile, Manitoba in 2007, and can be a hallmark of a very violent tornado. Indeed, if the home was as well constructed as was reported, this would be some of the most intense tornado damage ever documented in Walker County. The path length of just five miles seems a little short for such a strong tornado and it’s possible less intense damage may have occurred for longer than that, as the area was as rural then as it is now.


PHOTOGRAPH OF CROSSROADS TORNADO, FROM BIRMINGHAM NEWS. I only was made aware in 2020 that, amazingly for the era in rural Alabama, this tornado was photographed! It menaced the front page of the Birmingham News the following day. As the photograph shows, the Crossroads tornado was a large ‘wedge’ tornado under extremely low cloud bases and probably exhibited extremely violent chaotic motion along its surprisingly brief path. It surely appeared as a seething, amorphous black mass to terrified observers on the ground, instead of a more traditional funnel. Courtesy of SGFmoTwister on Talkweather.

The Crossroads tornado was a part of a two-day significant outbreak of tornadoes across Mississippi into central Alabama on the 17th and 18th. In Alabama alone, a total of fifteen tornadoes were confirmed, with eight deaths. One person was killed in Ensley on the evening of the 18th, and three more in Blount County two hours later from another violent tornado. The Crossroads tornado was the big show on the 17th, with only three tornadoes reported that day and the other twelve occurring on the 18th; the slow movement of the upper air system allowed the outbreak to occur for two days instead of quickly moving out as in many of our high end severe weather days.

The overall weather setup was rather classic and akin to many other red-letter severe weather days in the state, with a deep trough over the Rockies and a subtropical high pressure area over Florida. This led to significant divergence aloft over the southeast. Being on the west side of that anticyclonic high, strong southerly winds raced north into Alabama bringing unseasonably warm, humid, and unstable Gulf air. The observed high at Tuscaloosa on the 17th was a balmy 82, a record for the date, and dew point reached as high as 71 – extremely unstable thermodynamics for November. A surface low moving across the Ozarks put the final touches on a volatile environment that erupted with powerful tornadoes. A reconstructed surface map from that afternoon suggests an outflow boundary may have been laid out across central Alabama, and as documented on multiple days with intense tornadoes, such boundaries may sometimes have a significant effect on tornadogenesis. This could explain why the Crossroads tornado was especially strong, otherwise favorable environment notwithstanding.

AlabamaWX has multiple excellent articles about this tornado event, including personal stories and weather maps for the day.

Article one

Article two

Article three

BMX sounding for November 17

Article edited with additional content in April 2020.

It’s been ten years to the day since the Veterans Weekend Tornado Outbreak in 2002 that spawned two powerful EF-3 tornadoes in the county. The first tornado caused extensive damage in Carbon Hill and points northeast, while the second deadlier tornado raked across Saragossa and points northeast.

It’s perhaps ironic that, on this ten-year anniversary, I now live on a plot of land that was directly impacted by the second tornado. Just inside the woods outside the window, several rotting tree trunks wrapped in tin lie on the ground amidst new growth, and the tree directly above me at the moment shows the characteristic scars of tornado damage – a bent trunk with many branches rising vertically from the bend. It will be a very long time before the traces of these powerful tornadoes begin to fade.

Though not directly related to the Walker County tornadoes theme, generally, I have begun a secondary project to gather pre-tornado street-view and low-level aerial photos of areas struck by significant tornadoes on April 27, 2011. Google Earth and Bing Maps are my main sources of imagery but any pre-tornado photographs that anyone can provide will certainly be welcomed.

I am collecting imagery from publicly available sources along the paths of most of the EF-3+ tornadoes that day, from MS, AL, and GA.

Before/after imagery will therefore likely be made available on request once I get a decent archive completed.

The available online resources for the November 10, 2002 tornado event are scant. However, there are a few sites here and there that can provide a bit of information. Among these:



One of many Talkweather threads regarding the event

Bamaweather.com archives via WaybackMachine

A look at the Saragossa F3 path four years later

A look at the Saragossa F3 path four years later

Shown here is a Google Earth photo of Saragossa, AL, from 2006, almost four years after the F3 tornado that devastated the community on November 10th, 2002. The area of lighter green that runs from the bottom left of the picture to the top right – cutting through the center – shows the tornado’s track. For convenience, I’ve highlighted the tornado track and added approximate areas of road crossings in this image . The path is still very much visible today for those who know where to look, and especially to those familiar with the area. Particularly along Highway 5, Nichols RD, and Johnsey Bridge Road, tree damage is clearly evident near the points labelled on the map; numerous large tree snags still litter the landscape, several small trees are still bent over to near the ground, and countless living trees are limited to the main trunk and a few small branches densely clustered up the trunk. The path of the Carbon Hill tornado a few miles to the NW is similarly still visible, though recent extensive logging has made it difficult to pinpoint the exact area of tornado damage amidst the clearcuts.

Walker County is nestled into the Appalachian foothills just to the northwest of Birmingham, Alabama. The county has been known for mining and timber in the past, along with its wonderful people and Southern charm. But, being in the center of the so-called Dixie Alley, it’s also notable for its severe weather. The county has seen severe floods, fires, ice storms, and catastrophic drought through the years, along with temperature extremes; however, perhaps the most frightening aberration of nature that Walker County plays host to is the tornado. Dates such a April 3 1974, November 10 2002, and April 27 2011 bring back haunting memories for many residents. This page exists to help document the tornadoes that have affected the county in the past. The focus will primarily be on the disastrous tornadoes of November 10th, 2002, but any and all tornado activity in the county will also be eventually documented here. With time, I plan to fill this page with stories, survivor accounts, interview transcripts, photos, videos, weather data, and anything else I can gather with the help of local residents and meteorologists. Watch this space!

I need the help of anyone and everyone with information about Walker County AL tornadoes, so if you have anything to share, or know anyone who may be able to help, please send me an email at dreaming.of.the.vale@gmail.com and I’ll add it to the site. Thank you!